82 percent





75 percent




12 ( out of these 10 questions were from 2016/17/18)

80 percent (for questions from 2019-20)


















Total questions one could have attempted by studying from UPSC MENTOR only





QUESTIONS ONE MUST HAVE SURELY ATTEMPTED = 62-65 @ greater than 80 percent accuracy.

EXPECTED CUT OFF – 90+ (General Category)



  1. Relying on single newspaper for current affairs is not going to work for prelims.
  2. One needs to start working on current affairs atleast 2 years in advance. Maintain continuity in newspaper/current affair reading.
  3. Rather than focusing on what, focus on why, how and when part. In other words, more than factual part, focus on the concepts.
  4. Rather than focusing more unidirectionally on current affairs only, focus more on static part since they help you in concept building. Economy and Polity have always been high scoring areas where questions are asked directly.
  5. Don’t ignore NCERT science text books of class VIII-X
  6. For environment and wildlife, you must be an avid reader of Down To Earth magazine.







Q1 – Correct Answer is (b). It checks your common sense. We know that Aadhar is not mandatory for obtaining insurance products. If you have purchased any vehicle or health insurance, you would know that you are never asked to share your Aadhar details. So option (c) and (d) are ruled out. That leaves us with option (a) and (b), which means statement (4) is definitely correct. The word ‘metadata’ refers to structure of any information, or in simple words you can say a blank form, where information is later added. Aadhaar metadata would mean various fields like name, age, date of birth on Aadhar card, which are then to filled as per individual details. Definitely, these cannot be removed anytime. So, statement (1) is also wrong. Hence, the correct  statements are (2) and (4). Hence, this question needed Critical Reasoning Skills and some basic knowledge.




Q2 – Correct Answer is (b). In the matters of creating new All India services, Rajya Sabha has the only power to initiate the process. In the matter of removal of the govt and making cut motions, only Lok Sabha has the power. In amending the Constitution, both houses have equal powers.



Q3 – Correct Answer is (a). MPLADS seeks to create durable assets, must benefits SC/ST populations, provides non-lapsable funds. There is no specific requirement that atleast 10 percent of such works must be inspected by district authorities.




Q4 – Correct Answer is (d). Article 14-18 come under right to equality. Article 17 provides for right against untouchability.




Q5 – Correct Answer is (b). Article 50 under Part IV of the Constitution provides for separation of judiciary from executive.






Q6 – Correct answer is (d). We know that there is no such requirement from Article 110, 112, 114, or any other Article of the Constitution of India. That leaves us with choice (a) and (d).

From UPSCMENTOR – NO. Although, it could be answered with our study material and a bit of guess work, we won’t claim it.



Q7 – Correct answer is (d). A limited government is one whose legalised force and power is restricted through delegated and enumerated authorities. 




Q8 – Correct Answer is (d). The Preamble and the DPSPs provide for social justice and protection of weak and the poor. The Fundamental Duties also ask citizens to abstain from violence, and to renounce practices derogatory to women.




Q9 – Correct answer is (c). We know that the income limit for general category people is INR 5 lakh. So (1) is incorrect. Also we know that free legal aid is not available to senior citizens. So (4) is also incorrect. Also, the benefit in the form of fee waiver would logically be higher for transgenders than for OBCs. 




Q10 – (c) is the correct answer.

From UPSCMENTOR – Partially YES. Since we started in July 2019, we didn’t cover the below news articles but only the Talanoa convention. With our course, you would have been able to eliminate choices (a) and (b) only.

Alma-Ata Declaration – (January 2019)

Hague Convention – Related to either protection of children or protection of cultural sites (Wikipedia)

Talanoa Declaration –

Under2 Coalition – (2015)





Q11 – Correct Answer is (b).




Q12 – Correct Answer is (a). The idea of welfare state is declared in DPSPs under Part IV of the Constitution of India.




Q13 – Correct answer is (b). This is a tricky question, and subject to multiple inferences. Basic structure doctrine has been established by the Supreme Court, but is nowhere defined in the Constitution of India. However, Judicial review is provided by various provisions of the Constitution.




Q14 – Correct answer is (a). A lot of similarity is drawn between Mahatma Gandhi and Marx ideologies. Both aimed for a stateless and classless society but had very different approach to the means of achieving that.

From UPSCMENTOR – NO. This is ideally from Indian History (Modern India), where you study Gandhiji in detail, but it can be assumed to be part of Indian Polity too.



Q15 – Correct answer is (d). This was pretty forward. Any serious UPSC Aspirant would know that the job of bureaucracy (executive) is to implement the policy decided by the legislature.




Q16 – Correct answer is (d). It is clearly mentioned that Preamble is not enforceable in the court of law but helps in interpretation of other laws.





Q17 – Correct answer is (d) .




Q18 – Correct answer is (d).




Q19 – Correct answer is (d). In India, every person above 18 years of age is eligible to vote. However, to become member of the Parliament, which is a prerequisite to become a minister, one has to be atleast 25 years of age. Hence, statement (1) is incorrect. Also, the People’s Representation Act (1951) provides that a person convicted of a crime, for which the punishment is more than 2 years, is barred from contesting the elections, for 6 years, and not permanently. Hence, statement (2) is incorrect.




Q20 – Correct answer is (a). Since Parliament needs to meet atleast once in six months, therefore Parliament must meet for atleast 2 times in year.




History questions are out of our scope right now. So we are not covering those up.



History questions are out of our scope right now. So we are not covering those up.




History questions are out of our scope right now. So we are not covering those up.




Q37 – Correct answer is (d).

From UPSC MENTOR – NO, because the question came from 2017 current affairs.



Q38 – Correct answer is (d). It could be answered with general awareness about S&T. Basically AI can do anything one can think of.



Q39- Correct answer is (c). This is a very tough question but could be answered with common sense if you ever heard about Li-Fi, you would know that it is short range technology whereby light can be used to transfer data over short distances. Hence statement (2) is wrong. That leaves us with Choice (c) only.

From UPSCMENTOR – NO. It’s a miss from us, since it appeared in news article in Economic Times in 2019.



Q40 –  Correct answer is (d).






Q41 – Correct answer is (d). From the article, we know that (1) is true. rom the definition, we surely know that carbon nanotubes, are very fine tubes having diameters in nanometres. As such, (2) can be true. Since these have high electrical and thermal conductivity, these can be used as sensors too. As such, (3) is true. The only choice with these three options as correct is (d).

From UPSCMENTOR – YES. It appeared in the Hindu – S&T in the month of September 2019.



Q42 – Correct answer is (d). It could be done with common sense as to what a flying camera such as drone could be used for.



Q43 – Correct answer is (c). Nevertheless, the question can be disputed as the distance mentioned between the spacecrafts is 5 million kilometres and not just 1 million kilometres.

From UPSCMENTOR – NO, since it appeared in The Hindu newspaper of 2016, and we started in July 2019.



Q44 – Correct answer is (d). Generally, the choices with keywords such as ‘can be’, or ‘may be’ are correct, since with increasing human evolution, there is nothing that is not possible. Also, choices with extreme keywords such as ‘only’ are usually incorrect. With no idea about the information, we could have guessed choice (d) as the correct answer, in case we wanted to guess.

From UPSCMENTOR – NO, since the article appeared in the Hindu newspaper in 2017, and we started in July 2019.



Q45 – Correct answer is (b). Statement (3) is an extreme statement, and hence incorrect.






Q46 – Correct answer is (a). This is a typical question from IT sector, and those with IT or Computer Science background will be able to answer it. There was no mention of these keyword in any of the leading national newspaper in last one year, atleast.



Q47 – Correct answer is (c).  It could be answered with basic general awareness. We know that both plant and animal cells have membrane. Therefore, statement (2) is incorrect. That leaves us with choice (c) only. This is a typical question for science students from their basic books. Others would have found it tough.



Q48 –  Correct answer is (d). Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. It is also used in the manufacture of plastics, resins and adhesives. Hence statements (1), (2), (3) and (4) are surely correct. This is a typical question for science students from their basic books. Others would have found it tough.



Q49 – Correct answer is (a). Companies and governments usually resort to short term financial borrowings for day to day financial transactions. With too much dependence on such short term funds may lead a country to financial cash crunch in times of recession. As such not depending on short term foreign borrowings could help protect country from risks of cash crunch during recession in such donor countries.  Opening up  to more foreign banks, may expose Indian economy to risks of external economies. Maintaining full capital account convertibility means that rupee can be fully converted into any currency, and hence exposing Indian investors to risks in foreign financial markets.

From UPSCMENTOR – YES, but to answer this question you need very good understanding of concepts explained in this chapter.



Q50 – Correct answer is (d). The total money in an economy consists of all the money in circulation i.e. all the cash plus savings in an economy.

From. UPSCMENTOR – YES, but to answer this question you need very good understanding of concepts explained in this chapter.





Q51 –  Correct answer is (b). FDI refers to foreign investment in companies, whereby the investors share the risk of the company, and participate in its day to day management.  So, it’s not like a loan to a company, it’s like an investment in a company. It is not necessary that such investment be made in listed companies only. So (a) is incorrect. It does not involve debt servicing. So (c) is also incorrect. Also, it is not an investment made by the foreign investors in government Securities. So (d) is also incorrect. That leaves us with choice (b) only.




Q52 – Correct answer is (d). Statement (1) and (3) are correct. That leaves us with choices (d) only. We are able to answer with this much information only. However, if you do know that overall India has a trade deficit, you already know that statement (4) is correct. So by knowing any two correct answers among four given statements, you should be able to answer this question.




Q53 – The correct answer is (a). This was in news recently when the prices of global crude oil went negative.




Q54 – Correct answer is (d). Non-Financial Debt refers to debt taken by non-financial entities. As such loans taken by households, or amounts payable of credit cards, or treasury bills issued by the government are all instruments of Non-Financial Debt.

From UPSCMENTOR – NO. This was not part of our Indian Economy section. 



Q55 – Correct answer is (b). This came from February 2019 current affairs, and since we started in July 2019, we could not cover it. But going forward,  you know that how important it is to be well aware of last two to three years current affairs, especially from prelims point of view. That is where our content would come helpful to you since we keep it short and precise.




Q56 – Correct answer is (c). We know  that (1) and (3) are correct while (2) is false.

From UPSCMENTOR – Partially YES.





Q57 –  Correct answer is (c). This is done by cutting repo, reverse repo, bank rate, MSF rate, CRR, SLR, CAR rate. Hence, statements (1) and (3) are correct, while (2) is incorrect.

From UPSCMENTOR – YES. This is a straight question from our chapter on Monetary Policy in Indian Economy section.



Q58 – Correct answer is (b). We are not sure if statement (1) is correct or not. Let’s keep it as open. Due to economic liberalisation, economic centres have grown up in certain cities only, and as such the percentage of workforce from urban area has increased. That has infact been the reason for rural to urban migration. Therefore, statement (2) is definitely incorrect. Statement (3) is true, since the non-farm economy has been increasing while farm economy has been decreasing since  economic liberalisation. Statement (4) must also be true, since there has been an increasing trend of rural to urban migration. The only choice with both statement (3) and (4) correct is option (b).

From UPSCMENTOR – Partially YES, since it is a common sense question, and one should have been able to answer it based on knowledge about economic liberalisation of 1991.



Q59 – Correct Answer is (b). Given the wide spread and scope of scheduled Commercial Banks,  they generate more credit in agriculture sector than District Central Cooperative Banks. Hence, statement (1) is incorrect. DCCBs are one of the means to provide credit to primary agriculture cooperative societies, at district level. Thus, statement (2) is correct.

From UPSCMENTOR –Partially YES. Although, the question is not direct but it could very well be answered if anyone had read our content of the respective chapter.



Q60 – Correct answer is (b).

From UPSCMENTOR – NO. It came from February 2019 news article from the Hindu, and as such we couldn’t cover it since we started in July 2019. We are sure that none of the online or offline current affair modules would have covered this news since it didn’t appear on the national page of the newspaper. This question would have been answered by only those who read newspaper end to end. But going forward, you can rely on us for news articles after July 2019. We try to cover all news articles keeping in mind the needs of UPSC CSE. Reading the newspaper end to end might help you attempt such two three questions but may make you compromise on your other areas. So the return on investment is not good. When you read news, don’t focus on the facts, but focus on the concepts. What is this concept? Why is it important? What are its key features ?





Q61.- Correct answer is (c). 1,4,5 are subsidies. Hence, 2,3,6 can be considered as investments.




Q62 – Correct answer is (a). It is straight forward based on the definition. Interest coverage ration measures how many times a company can cover its current interest liabilities with its current earnings.  More the ratio, more is the paying ability.




Q63 – We found this question to be ambiguous, and hence we are not sure about its answer. We could not find authentic information on this.




Q64 – Correct answer is (b). We know that among SAARC nations, Bangladesh is India’s largest trading partner. So, statement (3) is incorrect. This rules out option (c) and (d). It leaves us with option (a) and (b), which means statement (2) is definitely correct. Nevertheless, we know that Bangladesh is known for its cheap textile items. So, it could be one of the important items of bilateral trade with India. So, now we have to determine if statement (1) is correct or not. Statement (1) could be correct, since due to promotion of free market economies world over, bilateral trade between countries has been only increasing, unless there are specific reasons for not being so. However, the question asks about consistent growth in last one decade. If you must have remembered, recent China’s increasing presence in Sri Lanka and growing rift with India, over current regime, there is a possibility that the bilateral trade might have taken a dip. Nevertheless, extreme statements such as ‘consistently increased’ are usually incorrect with UPSC CSE. So, we think that statement (1) is not correct. That leaves us with option (b).

From UPSCMENTOR – Partially YES, since our content could help  you eliminate choice (3) and (4). Going forward we will try to include in our content, the past 10 year trend in trade with important countries.





Q65 – Correct answer is (a).  This required pure rote learning. There is no logic involved. As of 2020 there are 20 members of the group: Argentina, Australia, BrazilCanadaChina, the European UnionFranceGermanyIndia, IndonesiaItaly, Japan, Mexico, RussiaSaudi Arabia, South AfricaSouth KoreaTurkey, the United Kingdom, and the United StatesSpain is a permanent guest invitee.



Q66 – Correct answer is (b). Kisan Credit Card scheme seeks to provide short term credit to farmers for activities directly related to them. It does not provide credit for activities that are not directly linked to farming, for e.g. post-harvest activities, transportation, food processing, etc. Hence, statements (2) and (5) are incorrect. That leaves us with option (b).




Q67 – Correct answer is (a). Statement (1) and (2) are correct, while (3) is incorrect.





Q68 –  Correct answer is (c). It could be answered through general awareness. One who has studied Geography well would know that Volga falls into Caspian Sea, while Mekong ( A tributary of Brahmaputra) falls in Bay of Bengal. Also Zambezi seems to be an African name (and right so, since it originates in Zambia in East Africa). So most probably it would fall into the Indian Ocean. Hence statement (1) is wrong, while (3) and (4) are correct. Option (c) satisfies this criteria.




Q69 – Correct answer is (d).

From UPSCMENTOR – NO, since this is related to a news article in The Hindu in September 2018. As such, it was not in our current affairs edition, since we started in 2019. Moreover, we did not cover it in our Indian Economy series as well. We will update it soon.



Q70 – Correct answer is (c). Statement (2) is incorrect, since Certificate of Deposit is a short term money instrument. Also, statements (1) and (3) are correct, as they are short term money instruments. The only option that matches this criteria is option (c).







Q74 – Correct answer is (a). This is a question which more than your knowledge of environment checks your presence of mind. Usually birds are identified using the colour of their chins. So we have Black Chinned Sparrows, White Chinned Crane etc. We don’t hear white chinned monkey, or black chinned snake, or blue chinned fish.



Q75 – Correct answer is (a). 

From UPSCMENTOR – NO. This is a question from March edition of Down to Earth magazine.



Q76 – Correct answer is (d). A very tough question, that did not appear in any newspaper/magazine. Only someone from Science and Technology or someone from Civil Engineering or Material Science could have answered this question.



Q77 – Correct answer is (a). If you have read Environment well, you would know that Musk Deer are found mostly in Alpine Forests. Alpine Forests are founds in upper ranges of Himalayas. Manas National Park is in Assam is located in the Himalayan foothills. Also, Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary is part of Dudhwa Tiger Reserve in Uttar Pradesh. Both these would definitely not have any alpine forests. So (3) and (4) can be ruled out. Gangotri National Park would definitely have alpine forests due to high altitude. So (2) is definitely correct. That leaves us with choice (a). So, we are able to answer this question, if we can do some smart guess work on three out of four locations.



Q78 – Correct answer is (a). A very tough question, that did not appear in any newspaper or magazine. Only someone from Science and Technology, and probably from Civil Engineering could have answered this question. However, with some smart guess work, you could have tried this question, if could make sense out of the terminology of given choices. There are two options – One is cold mix asphalt technology and other is hot mix asphalt technology. Naturally, when you heat something, it emits gases, and therefore, definitely that could be more pollution causing then when you mix something cold. So option (4) can be ruled out. Geotextile, as the name suggests, would be a better environment friendly choice. So (3) must be one of the correct options. Look out for answer choices which have (3) but not (4). That leaves us with choice (a). An additional fact, would be that traditional Portland cement causes a lot of pollution, during its production as well as use.





Q79 – Correct answer is (d).  This is a straightforward question for those from science background. This information is also there is geography text books.



Q80 – Correct answer is (d).  

From UPSCMENTOR – Partially YES, since you would know what a biochar is, but we did not cover its application in agriculture.

The full article came from August edition of Down to Earth website –



Q81 – Correct answer is (a).




Q83 – Correct answer is (d).





Q84 – Correct answer is (a). This question tests your common sense. Obviously, you would not allow those items as raw materials for biofuels, which are in short supply or major food items. As such, we can rule out groundnuts and horse grams. Also, it makes sense to make biofuel from damaged wheat grains, rotten potatoes, and sugar beet which have no utility otherwise. Most of us won’t be knowing what is Cassava. Such options are included just to confuse. So we need to look at answer choice which has option (2), (5) and (6) but not (3) and (4). This leaves us with answer choice (a).



Q85 – Correct answer is (c). This question tests your common sense. Social cost of carbon means the social sufferings of people due to carbon usage or in other words, social suffering of people due to climate change or health hazards which are caused by carbon usage. Answer choice (a) does not specify the nature of damage specific to humans. Answer choice (b) is irrelevant. Answer choice (d) is the cause and not the effect of increased carbon footprint.



Q86 – Correct answer is (a). This question tests your common sense. Green gram or moong definitely does not constitute more than 50 percent of all pulse production in the country. The only answer choice without statement (2) is option (a).



Q87 – Correct answer is (a). Anyone who has studied Geography must be able to answer this.



Q88 – Correct answer is (d). This question tests your common sense. Solar energy generates power which can be used to make any kind of device work, be it submersible or surface pumps, be it centrifugal or piston pumps.




Q89 – Too technical a question. Only agriculture students or those who could understand the below article might find it worth attempting.

From UPSCMENTOR – NO, since this question came from January 2020 edition of Hindu Business line Magazine.



Q90 – Correct answer is (d). This question checks your common sense, since all of you must have studied the concepts involved from science during your school days. Let say we don’t know what is tensiometer (it is a device used to measure moisture content of the soil). We know that vertical farming is part of eco-friendly organic farming. Crop diversification helps in sustainable use of land whereby the soil is not deprived of certain specific nutrients due to cultivation of single crop. Legumes are nitrogen fixing plants and hence their intensification would help in fixing soil nitrogen. Hence, we must look out for options in which options (1), (2) and (4) are definitely there. That leaves us with option (d).



Q91 – Correct answer is (d). Unless you know what is fertigation, you would not be able to answer this question. However, from name you could have sensed that fertigation refers to fertilizer + irrigation or in other words, application of fertilizers through irrigation. Let’s try now. With common sense, statements (1), (3) and (4) look correct. However statement (2) seems to be correct too, unless you specifically know that rock phosphate is not soluble in water. Hence, this question was tricky and required specific knowledge about types and properties of various elements of a fertilizer.



Q92 – Correct answer is (d). Very tough question, and almost impossible that an aspirant would remember all major or minor minerals to this extent.





Q93 – Correct answer is (b).

From UPSCMENTOR – NO. This is a question from Geography, but it also appeared in September 2018 edition of the Hindu newspaper, in its S&T section. We did not cover it since we started in July 2019. 



Q94 – Correct answer is (b). Statement (1) is incorrect since Urea is still under government control and not deregulated. If you have read NCERT science books up to class X, you would know that typical modern ammonia-producing plant first converts natural gas (i.e., methane) or LPG (liquefied petroleum gases such as propane and butane) or petroleum naphtha into gaseous hydrogen. The hydrogen is then combined with nitrogen to produce ammonia via the Haber-Bosch process. So, statement (2) is correct. If you have read NCERT science books up to class X, you would know that Sulphur is a by-product of petroleum refinery. So, statement (3) is correct.

From UPSCMENTOR – Partially YES.



Q95 – Correct answer is (c). It primarily checks your common sense. Statement (2) has a high probability of being incorrect, because it is an extreme statement. It is a claim which can be broken if tomorrow we find someone residing in that area. The only answer choice with statement (2) is option (c).



Q98 – Correct answer is (b). We know that statement (2) is correct. Let us assume we have no idea about statement (1) and are not sure about statement (3). Pen down the list of countries bigger than India in terms of area – USA, Canada, Russia, China, Brazil, and Australia. Among these, only USA and China compete with India in terms of food grain production, and both these nations are in temperate zones where the requirement of irrigation is anyhow less. India with its warm temperature in majority of its states, has high requirement of irrigation, and meets it through ground water potential. Hence, it is likely that statement  (3) is correct. With these two, the only option that is correct is option (b).

From UPSCMENTOR – Partially YES


Q99 – Correct answer is (c). Those who have read Geography would know that Jet streams occur in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Hence, statement (1) is incorrect. Not all cyclones develop eye. Hence, statement (1) is correct. A cyclone is formed when low pressure is formed in the centre and water vapours from adjoining areas start flowing towards this low pressure area. Low pressure is formed over warm waters. Hence, the opposite of statement (3) is correct.